Linguistic scholars have found minimal differences between the languages of Avestan and Vedic literature. It is surrounded by verandas on four sides. The best specimen is the little figure of a nude dancing girl with right hand on hips, arms loaded with bangles, head slightly tilted and covered with curly hair, the eyes large and half closed. The street ran straight and at right angles to each other following the grid system. The streets were very wide and the houses built of burnt bricks lined both sides of the street. The cities show evidence of an advanced sense of planning and organization. Texts in the Indus script are too short of approx five-character at maximum. Some researchers believe in the Dravidian hypothesis and others in Sanskrit theory. Leg bone of elephant was found at Kalibangan. may be u can also include on rakhigarhi latest findings. The merchandise was shipped from Lothal and incoming goods were received here. The Aryans were more skilled at warfare and were powerful than the Harappans. Of all these types of inscriptions, stamp seals are the most numerous, and they are the focus of this photo essay. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Lothal is at the head of the Gulf of Cambay. Script and Language. But there is very little evidence on this opinion. The Bronze Age civilization of Indian Subcontinent called Indus civilization or the Harappan civilization flourished from about 2500 B.C to 1900 B.C. It was the first Indus site to be discovered and excavated in 1921. The plain ware is usually of red clay with or without a fine red slip. It was chiefly made and consists of both plain and painted ware and plain variety being more common. The town was extremely well planned. In 1932, Indus script decipherment was first proposed by the famous Egyptologist of his time, The enigma is in deciphering what these signs mean and represent. There are many unsolved problems relating to the Indus Valley Civilization. From the last hundreds of years, archaeologists are working on translating and deciphering the Indus or Harappan script. The complete Harappan script was found by 1923, but it is still not deciphered. But this theory is partly true. Image courtesy of J.M. The Harappan civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures. Symbol of fish was used for the meal. Each seal contained a maximum of five symbols. The designs are “little masterpieces of controlled realism, with a monumental strength in one sense out of all proportion to their size and in another entirely related to it”, wrote the best-known excavator of the Indus civilization, Mortimer Wheeler, in 19681. Introduction to Harappan Civilization. Harappans were inventors of linear system of measurement with a unit equal to one angula of the Arthasastra. Thanks for appreciating The streets were all well planned and drains regularly drained out. The Indus Valley Civilization discovered the oldest script in history. Sir John Marshall says that nothing that we know of in other countries bears any resemblance in point of style to the models of rams, dogs or the intaglio engravings on the seals-the best of which are distinguished by a breadth of treatment and a feeling for line and plastic form that have hardly been surpassed in glyptic art. However, scholars debate its inception from the two most common and ancient Indian languages Sanskrit and Dravidian (Tamil or Proto-Dravidian). It was essentially urban civilization. Semitic languages like Phoenician and Arabic use the syllabic system. Cracked based on similarities between the Egyptian hieroglyphs and the pictographic principles,  he suggested that the signs are in Dravidian from the Tamil language family of southern India. It has evidence of having both proto Harappan and Harappan cultural phases. The variants are formed by adding different accents, inflexions or other letters to the former. Another favourite motive was tree pattern. In the field of religions many important features of Harappan religion were adopted in later Hinduism. Harappan people used different types of pottery such as galzed, polychrome, incised perforated and knobbed. The best specimen among the stone sculptures of Mohanjodaro is the steatite image of a bearded man wearing an ornamented robe. Bronze Age Civilization Indus Valley Civilization Cradle Of Civilization Ancient Aliens Ancient Art Ancient Egypt Ancient History Harappa And Mohenjo Daro Harappan Research has shown that these signs and seals are prominently related to the trade between the Indus people and the Akkadian Empire. Harappan script is regarded as pictographic since its signs represent birds, fish, varieties of the human form etc. The sensational discoveries made at Harappa in West Punjab and Mohenjodaro in Sind have revolutionised our idea of ancient Indian history. Out of the two sculptures at Harappa one is a tiny nude male torso of red sandstone and the other is also a small nude dancing figure made of grey stone. Therefore, it is better it is called as the Harappan civilization. The excavation work was carried by R.S Bisht and his team in 190-91. Certain trees seem to have been treated as sacred such as papal. These are inscribed on miniature steatite (soapstone) seal stones, terracotta tablets and occasionally on metal. It shares almost all the common features of Indus cities such as town planning, grid system, drainage system and the like. The number of signs of the Harappan script is known to be between 400 and 600 of which 40 or 60 are basic and the rest are their variants. Four unique bronzes of elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo and chariot each weighing 60 kgs from the recently excavated site of Daimabad have thrown further light on the bronze work of the Harappans. An attempt has been made by Natwar Jha a palaeographist and Vedic scholar who says that script is syllabic that is no vowels are written. the Harappan civilization because Harappa was the first site, which brought to light the presence of this civilization. Harappan script is regarded as pictographic since its signs represent birds, fish, varieties of the human form etc. A total of 420 signs have been found on these seals. These are the nearest buildings to the river and thus could easily be supplied by river transport. Some ascribe it to decreasing fertility on account of the increasing salinity of the soil caused by the expansion of the neighbouring desert. It consists chiefly of wheel made wares both plain and painted. Although the theory of ecological factors for the decline of the Harappan civilization is latest yet it does not give us complete answer. In the Lothal port, there was a dockyard which was 216 mtrs in length and 37 mtrs in breadth. In Harappa the Granary was outside the Fort. Square stamp seals are the dominant form of Indus writing media; they are normally an inch square (2.54 centimetres) displaying the script itself on the top and an animal motif at the centre. The unique feature of the site is its division into two parts as in other cities but three sections. The Indus people gave to the world its earliest sites, its first urban civilization, its first town planning, its first architecture in stone and brick as protection against floods, its first example of sanitary engineering and drainage works. Exchange were regulated by a precise system of weights, usually made of a stone called chert with no marking. The animals like elephants, pigs, cattle, dogs, fowl, camels and buffalo were domesticated. Others point out that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans but there is hardly any evidence of a mass scale confrontation between the two. Impressions of cloth are noticeable on some of the sealing found here. In Egypt and Mesopotamia dried or baked bricks were used. Scholars, and researchers found many shreds of evidence such as potteries with signs and symbols and stamps about the culture since the 1930s. Each city was divided into the citadel area where the essential institutions of civic and religious life were located and the residential area where the urban population lived. Historians are of the view that the decline of the Indus Civilization was not the result of a single event; it was a slow decline and a result of combination of factors. Worship was also practiced by the Aryans which is undecipherable five-character at maximum precursors the... 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